Implementation of time management techniques in highway projects
Road Construction Industry is an essential component for driving the economy of any country. The number of road construction projects is increasing from time to time in Rwanda. However, it becomes difficult to complete projects in the allocated cost and time. Taking this into consideration, time overrun is one of the major problems Rwanda road projects encountered. Effective time management is very important in determining a success of any project. Thus, without proper controlling of time will cause project delay and consequently budget overrun. There are various techniques and software which can be adopted for controlling time in construction projects. Therefore, the aim of this research is the implementation of effective Time Management Techniques in Highway Projects in Rwanda for improving performance, through the identification of Critical Success Factors and Provision of an appropriate Guidance. In order to achieve that aim a detailed literature review was conducted, both Time Management Techniques and Critical Success Factors (CSF) associated with the effective use and implementation of Time Management Techniques for Highway Projects in Rwanda were identified. Therefore time management tools and techniques identified through the literature are CPM, PERT, GERT, Gantt charts, simulation, milestone charts, and variance analysis, project management software, and Precedence Network Diagram together with a total of seventy-six factors influencing construction project delivery time either positively or negatively grouped into twelve major headings namely: The client's understanding of the design, procurement, and construction processes; Quality management during design; Quality management during construction; Management techniques used for planning and control; Economic policy; Constructability of design; Site ground conditions; Motivation of staff; Management style; Site access; Physical environment considerations, and sociopolitical considerations. Afterward a designed questionnaire for preliminary survey was distributed to the selected Road construction stakeholders and all aforementioned factors and time management techniques were ranked according to the computed relative importance indices. The most and least important performance factors, categories of factors, and time management tools are also achieved according to these rankings. The findings from preliminary survey (10 criteria) corresponding to the two (2) alternatives such as Time Management Techniques and critical success factors in term of time management, served to determine new set of criteria to be used for construction of Framework for evaluating, ranking and compare those two alternatives for second survey using Fuzzy Vikor Method. This survey (Fuzzy VIKOR Questionnaire) prioritized these critical factors and tools and investigated the interdependent relationship between the alternatives. By the Best Non Fuzzy Performance (BNP) value, the highest influential performance criteria for implementation of time management techniques in highway projects for improved performance were computed. According to all responses from experts in road construction projects, Time Management Techniques is the most important alternatives with respect to the project performance compared to the Critical Success Factors with time management as it has been ranked the first; and the following factors; Client understanding of Design, Procurement, and Construction Process, Techniques for Planning and Control (Critical Path Method CPM), Gantt Chart, Quality of Management During Construction , Management Style and Economic policy are the highest influential factors for improving highway projects performance. The findings of this study imply that Critical Path Method (CPM) is an effective tool for project managers to improve highway project performance in term of time delivery and as well Client understanding of Design, Procurement, and Construction Process, is the most influential factor for improving highway projects performance. Further the appropriate project management practice and training for successful execution of Highway Projects in Rwanda Transport Development Agency (RTDA) have been recommended.
Keywords: Construction, Management Style, Highway Projects, Effective time