2018 shows that the Progress to tackle all forms of malnutrition remains unacceptably slow, and according to the latest nutrition assessment, Countries are struggling with multiple forms of malnutrition. Despite Rwanda’s impressive economic growth, household food insecurity and under nutrition remain a challenge and Rwanda has developed the National Food and Nutrition Policy in order to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition. The study looked at the coexisting forms of malnutrition among under five children in a rural health center of Rwanda from 2015 to 2019
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and closed ended questionnaire for the purpose of collecting data was used. Systematic sampling technique was used for selecting participants. Data extracted were set and bivariate analysis were used to find significance then results were obtained on the basis of percentage, frequency and inferences using SPSS 21.0 version. Chi-square test and multi logistic regression was applied to coexistence with socio- demographic characteristics, health characteristics and factors then and p-value was considered significant at less than 0.05
Results: Among the 222 children in this study, 113 were females and 109 males. The results showed that 19.8% children were affected by coexisting forms of malnutrition where 10.4% of them were suffering from stunting and anemia at the same time, 3.9% with anemia and wasting, 4.9 % with stunting and wasting, 0.9% with oedema and anemia. There was a statistical significant association between coexistence of malnutrition to one child with 1st wealth category (COR = 2.740; 95% CI [1.184 – 6.340]) at p=0.019, with poverty, diseases and other factors (OR = 97.800; 95% CI [28.463– 336.047]) at p=0.000, (OR = 54.333; 95% CI [11.635 – 255.917]) at p=0.000 and (OR=81.500; 95% CI [14. 246 – 466.237]) at p=0.000 respectively, again with health characteristics such as malnutrition of mothers, birth weight of children, daily meal frequency, number of under 5 children, exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding.
Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that different forms of malnutrition coexist to one child and to different children of the same mother, this coexistence is associated with socio-demographic characteristics, health characteristics health factors. Which are also more likely to be associated with stunting and other general malnutrition conditions
Keywords: Coexistence, Malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anemia, oedema, children 6-59 month

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